Tuesday, March 31, 2015

What Happened This Day In History - March 31

1282 The great massacre of the French in Sicily The Sicilian Vespers comes to an end.
1547 In France, Francis–king since 1515–dies and is succeeded by his son Henry II.
1776 Abigail Adams writes to husband John that women are "determined to foment a rebellion" if the new Declaration of Independence fails to guarantee their rights.
1779 Russia and Turkey sign a treaty by which they promise to take no military action in the Crimea.
1790 In Paris, France, Maximilien Robespierre is elected president of the Jacobin Club.
1836 The first monthly installment of The Pickwick Papers by Charles Dickens is published in London.
1862 Skirmishing between Rebels and Union forces takes place at Island 10 on the Mississippi River.
1880 The first electric street lights ever installed by a municipality are turned on in Wabash, Indiana.
1889 The Eiffel Tower in Paris officially opens on the Left Bank as part of the Exhibition of 1889.
1916 General John Pershing and his army rout Pancho Villa's army in Mexico.
1917 The United States purchases the Virgin Islands from Denmark for $25 million.
1918 Daylight Savings Time goes into effect throughout the United States for the first time.
1921 Great Britain declares a state of emergency because of the thousands of coal miners on strike.
1933 To relieve rampant unemployment, Congress authorizes the Civilian Conservation Corps .
1939 Britain and France agree to support Poland if Germany threatens to invade.
1940 La Guardia airport in New York officially opens to the public.
1941 Germany begins a counter offensive in North Africa.
1945 The United States and Britain bar a Soviet supported provisional regime in Warsaw from entering the U.N. meeting in San Francisco.
1948 The Soviet Union begins controlling the Western trains headed toward Berlin.
1949 Winston Churchill declares that the A-bomb was the only thing that kept the Soviet Union from taking over Europe.
1954 The siege of Dien Bien Phu, the last French outpost in Vietnam, begins after the Viet Minh realize it cannot be taken by direct assault.
1960 The South African government declares a state of emergency after demonstrations lead to the deaths of more than 50 Africans.
1966 An estimated 200,000 anti-war demonstrators march in New York City.
1967 President Lyndon Johnson signs the Consular Treaty, the first bi-lateral pact with the Soviet Union since the Bolshevik Revolution.
1970 U.S. forces in Vietnam down a MIG-21, the first since September 1968.
1980 President Jimmy Carter deregulates the banking industry.
1991 Albania offers a multi-party election for the first time in 50 years.

Born on March 31
1596 René Descartes, French philosopher and scientist.
1621 Andrew Marvell, English poet and politician.
1693 John Harrison, Englishman who invented the chronometer.
1732 Franz Joseph Haydn, Austrian composer.
1809 Edward Fitzgerald, American writer.
1809 Nikolai V. Gogol, Russian writer (The Inspector GeneralDead Souls).
1811 Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, chemist, inventor of the Bunsen burner.
1854 Sir Dugald Clerk, inventor of the two-stroke motorcycle engine.
1878 Jack Johnson, first Africa-American boxer to become the world heavyweight champion.
1914 Octavio Paz, Mexican diplomat and Nobel Prize-winning writer.
1915 Henry Morgan, comedian, radio performer.
1926 John Fowles, English novelist (The CollectorThe French Lieutenant's Woman).
1936 Marge Piercy, poet and novelist.
1948 Al Gore, Vice President to President William J. Clinton (1993-2001).

Monday, March 30, 2015

What Happened This Day In History - March 30

1492 King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella sign a decree expelling all Jews from Spain.
1840 "Beau" Brummell, the English dandy and former favorite of the prince regent, dies in a French lunatic asylum for paupers.
1858 Hyman L. Lipman of Philadelphia patents the pencil with an eraser attached on one end.
1867 Russian Baron Stoeckl and U.S. Secretary of State Seward completed the draft of a treaty ceding Alaska to the United States. The treaty is signed the following day.
1870 The 15th amendment, guaranteeing the right to vote regardless of race, passes.
1870 President U.S. Grant signs bill readmitting Texas to the Union, the last Confederate state readmitted.
1885 In Afghanistan, Russian troops inflict a crushing defeat on Afghan forces Ak Teppe despite orders not to fight.
1909 The Queensboro Bridge in New York opens. It is the first double decker bridge and links Manhattan and Queens.
1916 Mexican bandit Pancho Villa kills 172 at the Guerrero garrison in Mexico.
1936 Britain announces a naval construction program of 38 warships. This is the largest construction program in 15 years.
1941 The German Afrika Korps under General Erwin Rommel begins its first offensive against British forces in Libya.
1943 Rodgers and Hammerstein's first collaboration, Oklahoma, opens on Broadway.
1944 The U.S. fleet attacks Palau, near the Philippines.
1945 The Red Army advances into Austria.
1946 The Allies seize 1,000 Nazis attempting to revive the Nazi party in Frankfurt.
1950 President Harry S Truman denounces Senator Joe McCarthy as a saboteur of U.S. foreign policy.
1957 Tunisia and Morocco sign a friendship treaty in Rabat.
1972 Hanoi launches its heaviest attack in four years, crossing the DMZ.
1975 As the North Vietnamese forces move toward Saigon, desperate South Vietnamese soldiers mob rescue jets.
1981 President Ronald Reagan is shot and wounded in Washington, D.C. by John W. Hinkley Jr.
1987 Vincent Van Gogh's Sunflowers is bought for $39.85 million.

Born on March 30
1719 Sir John Hawkins, author of the first history of music.
1820 Anna Sewell, English novelist (Black Beauty).
1853 Vincent Van Gogh, Dutch impressionist artist.
1880 Sean O'Casey, Irish playwright.
1883 Jo Davidson, American sculptor.

Sunday, March 29, 2015

What Happened This Day In History - March 29

1461 The armies of two kings, Henry VI and Edward IV, collide at Towton.
1638 A permanent European colony is established in present-day Delaware.
1827 Composer Ludwig van Beethoven is buried in Vienna amidst a crowd of over 10,000 mourners.
1847 U.S. troops under General Winfield Scott take possession of the Mexican stronghold at Vera Cruz.
1867 The United States purchases Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million dollars.
1879 British troops of the 90th Light Infantry Regiment repulse a major attack by Zulu tribesmen in northwest Zululand.
1886 Coca-Cola goes on sale for the first time at a drugstore in Atlanta. Its inventor, Dr. John Pemberton, claims it can cure anything from hysteria to the common cold.
1903 A regular news service begins between New York and London on Marconi's wireless.
1913 The German government announces a raise in taxes in order to finance the new military budget.
1916 The Italians call off the fifth attack on Isonzo.
1936 Italy firebombs the Ethiopian city of Harar.
1941 The British sink five Italian warships off the Peloponnesus coast in the Mediterranean.
1951 The Chinese reject Gen. Douglas MacArthur's offer for a truce in Korea.
1951 Rodgers and Hammerstein's musical The King and I opens on Broadway starring Gertrude Lawrence and Yul Brynner.
1952 President Harry Truman removes himself from the presidential race.
1961 The 23rd amendment, allowing residents of Washington, D.C. to vote for president, is ratified.
1962 Cuba opens the trial of the Bay of Pigs invaders.
1966 Leonid Brezhenev becomes First Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party. He denounces the American policy in Vietnam and calls it one of aggression.
1967 France launches its first nuclear submarine.
1971 Lt. William L. Calley Jr. is found guilty for his actions in the My Lai massacre.
1973 The last U.S. troops withdraw from South Vietnam.
1975 Egyptian president Anwar Sadat declares that he will reopen the Suez Canal on June 5, 1975.
1976 Eight Ohio National Guardsmen are indicted for shooting four Kent State students during an anti-war protest on May 4, 1970.
1986 A court in Rome acquits six men in a plot to kill the Pope.

Born on March 29
1790 John Tyler, 10th President of the United States (1841-1845).
1819 Edwin Drake, drilled the first productive oil well.
1835 Elihu Thomson, the English-born American inventor of electric welding and arc lighting.
1867 Cy Young, major league baseball pitcher with the most wins (509 or 511 total).
1875 Lou Henry Hoover, first lady President Herbert Hoover.
1881 Raymond Hood, architect.
1888 James E. Casey, founder of the United Parcel Service
1910 Helen Wells, author of the Cherry Ames series.
1916 Eugene McCarthy, U.S. senator and presidential candidate.
1918 Pearl Bailey, singer and actress.
1936 Judith Guest, novelist (Ordinary People).

Saturday, March 28, 2015

What Happened This Day In History - March 28

1774 Britain passes the Coercive Act against rebellious Massachusetts.
1854 Britain and France declare war on Russia.
1864 A group of Copperheads attack Federal soldiers in Charleston, Illinois. Five are killed and twenty wounded.
1885 The Salvation Army is officially organized in the United States.
1908 Automobile owners lobby Congress in support of a bill that calls for vehicle licensing and federal registration.
1910 The first seaplane takes off from water at Martinques, France.
1917 The Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) is founded, Great Britain's first official service women.
1921 President Warren Harding names William Howard Taft as chief justice of the United States.
1930 Constantinople and Angora change their names to Istanbul and Ankara respectively.
1933 Nazis order a ban on all Jews in businesses, professions and schools.
1939 The Spanish Civil War ends as Madrid falls to Francisco Franco.
1941 The Italian fleet is routed by the British at the Battle of Battle of Cape Matapan
1941 English novelist Virginia Woolf throws herself into the River Ouse near her home in Sussex. Her body is never found.
1942 A British ship, the HMS Capbeltown, a Lend-Lease American destroyer, which was specifically rammed into a German occupied dry-dock in France, explodes, knocking the area out of action for the German battleship Tirpitz.
1945 Germany launches the last of its V-2 rockets against England.
1946 Juan Peron is elected President of Argentina. He will hold the office for six years.
1962 The U.S. Air Force announces research into the use of lasers to intercept missiles and satellites.
1969 Dwight D. Eisenhower dies at Walter Reed General Hospital in Washington, D.C.
1979 A major accident occurs at Pennsylvania's Three Mile Island nuclear power plant
1986 The U.S. Senate passes $100 million aid package for the Nicaraguan contras.
1990 Jesse Owens receives the Congressional Gold Medal from President George Bush.
1999 An American Stealth F117 Nighthawk is shot down over northern Yugoslavia during NATO air strikes.

Born on March 28
1652 Samuel Sewall, British colonial merchant and one of the Salem witch trial judges.
1818 Wade Hampton, Confederate general in the American Civil War.
1862 Aristide Briand, premier of France (1909-22).
1868 Maxim Gorky, Russian short story writer and novelist.
1895 James McCudden, the first RAF pilot to receive the Victoria Cross.
1909 Nelson Algren, novelist (The Man with the Golden ArmA Walk on the Wild Side).
1929 Frederick Exley, American novelist (A Fan's Notes).
1930 Jerome Isaac Friedman, American physicist, helped confirm the existence of quarks.
1936 Mario Vargas Llosa, Peruvian novelist (Aunt Julia and the ScriptwriterDeath in the Andes)

Friday, March 27, 2015


1350 While besieging Gibraltar, Alfonso XI of Castile dies of the black death.
1512 Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon sights Florida.
1802 The Treaty of Amiens is signed, ending the French Revolutionary War.
1814 U.S. troops under Gen. Andrew Jackson inflict a crushing defeat on the Creek Indians at Horshoe Bend in Northern Alabama.
1836 The Mexican army massacres Texan rebels at Goliad.
1866 President Andrew Johnson vetoes the civil rights bill, which later becomes the 14th amendment.
1884 The first long-distance telephone call is made from Boston to New York.
1893 The American Bell Telephone Company makes the first long distance telephone call to its branch office in New York.
1899 The Italian inventor G. Marconi achieves the first international radio transmission between England and France.
1900 The London Parliament passes the War Loan Act, which gives 35 million pounds to the Boer War cause.
1912 The first cherry blossom trees, a gift from Japan, are planted in Washington, D.C.
1933 Some 55,000 people stage a protest against Hitler in New York.
1941 Tokeo Yoshikawa arrives in Oahu, Hawaii, to begin spying for Japan on the U.S. fleet at Pearl Harbor.
1942 The British raid the Nazi submarine base at St. Nazaire, France.
1944 One thousand Jews leave Drancy, France for the Auschwitz concentration camp.
1944 Thousands of Jews are murdered in Kaunas, Lithuania. The Gestapo shoots forty Jewish policemen in the Riga, Latvia ghetto.
1945 General Dwight Eisenhower declares that the German defenses on the Western Front have been broken.
1952 Elements of the U.S. Eighth Army reach the 38th parallel in Korea, the original dividing line between the two Koreas.
1958 The United States announces a plan to explore space near the moon.
1976 Washington, D.C. opens its subway system.
1977 In aviation's worst disaster yet, 582 die when a KLM Pan Am 747 crashes.

Born on March 27
1785 Louis XVII, pretender to the throne during the French Revolution.
1809 Georges-Eugene Haussmann, French town planner, designed modern-day Paris.
1813 Nathaniel Currier, lithographer for Currier and Ives.
1845 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, German physicist, accidentally discovered X-rays.
1863 Sir Henry Royce, cofounder the Rolls-Royce automotive company.
1879 Edward Steichen, pioneer of American photography.
1906 Pee Wee Russell, jazz clarinetist.
1910 John Robinson Pierce, the father of comunications satellites.
1914 Budd Schulberg, journalist, novelist and screenwriter (What Makes Sammy Run).
1923 Louis Simpson, Pultizer Prize-winning poet.
1924 Sarah Vaughan, jazz singer.

Thursday, March 26, 2015

Today in History March 26

1517   The famous Flemish composer Heinrich Issac dies. 
1799   Napoleon Bonaparte captures Jaffa, Palestine. 
1804   Congress orders the removal of Indians east of the Mississippi River to Louisiana. 
1804   The territory of New Orleans is organized in the Louisiana Purchase. 
1827   German composer Ludwig Van Beethoven dies in Vienna. He had been deaf for the later part of his life, but said on his death bed "I shall hear in heaven." 
1832   Famed western artist George Catlin begins his voyage up the Missouri River aboard the American Fur Company steamship Yellowstone
1885   Eastman Film Co. manufactures the first commercial motion picture film. 
1913   The Balkan allies take Adrianople. 
1918   On the Western Front, the Germans take the French towns Noyon, Roye and Lihons. 
1938   Herman Goering warns all Jews to leave Austria. 
1942   The Germans begin sending Jews to Auschwitz in Poland. 
1950   Senator Joe McCarthy names Owen Lattimore, an ex-State Department adviser, as a Soviet spy.
1951   The United States Air Force flag design is approved. 
1953   Eisenhower offers increased aid to the French fighting in Indochina. 
1953   Dr. Jonas Salk announces a new vaccine against polio. 
1954   The United States sets off an H-bomb blast in the Marshall Islands, the second in four weeks. 
1961   John F. Kennedy meets with British Premier Macmillan in Washington to discuss increased Communist involvement in Laos. 
1969   The Soviet weather Satellite Meteor 1 is launched. 
1969   Writer John Kennedy Toole commits suicide at the age of 32. His mother helps get his first and only novel, A Confederacy of Dunces, published. It goes on to win the 1981 Pulitzer Prize. 
1979   The Camp David treaty is signed between Israel and Egypt. 
1982   Ground is broken in Washington D.C. for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. 
1989   The first free elections take place in the Soviet Union. Boris Yeltsin is elected. 
1992   An Indianapolis court finds heavyweight boxing champion Mike Tyson guilty of rape.

Born on March 26
1819   Louise Otto, German author. 1850   Edward Bellamy, writer (Looking Backward). 
1859   A.E. Houseman, poet (A Shropshire Lad). 
1874   Robert Frost, poet, multiple Pulitzer Prize-winner. 
1880   Duncan Hines, U.S. restaurant guide author 
1904   Joseph Campbell, folklorist and writer. 
1911   Tennessee Williams, American dramatist (Cat on a Hot Tin RoofA Streetcar Name Desire). 
1914   William Westmoreland, U.S. army general during the Vietnam War. 
1923   Bob Elliot, radio comedian, one half of Bob and Ray. 
1930   Gregory Corso, beat poet, discovered literature in prison. 
1930   Sandra Day O'Connor, U.S. Supreme Court Justice. 
1933   Vine Deloria, Jr., writer, activist. 
1942   Erica Jong, poet, novelist (Fear of FlyingHow to Save Your Own Life). 

Wednesday, March 25, 2015


708Constantine begins his reign as Catholic Pope.
1634Lord Baltimore founds the Catholic colony of Maryland.
1655Puritans jail Governor Stone after a military victory over Catholic forces in the colony of Maryland.
1668The first horse race in America takes place.
1776The Continental Congress authorizes a medal for General George Washington.
1807British Parliament abolishes the slave trade.
1813The frigate USS Essex flies the first U.S. flag in battle in the Pacific.
1865Confederate forces capture Fort Stedman, during the siege of Petersburg, Va.
1879Japan invades the kingdom of Liuqiu (Ryukyu) Islands, formerly a vassal of China.
1905Rebel battle flags that were captured during the American Civil War are returned to the South.
1911A fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company, a sweatshop in New York City, claims the lives of 146 workers.
1915The first submarine disaster occurs when a U.S. F-4 sinks off the Hawaiian coast.
1919The Paris Peace Commission adopts a plan to protect nations from the influx of foreign labor.
1931Fifty people are killed in riots that break out in India. Mahatma Gandhi was one of many people assaulted.
1940The United States agrees to give Britain and France access to all American warplanes.
1941Yugoslavia joins the Axis powers.
1953The USS Missouri fires on targets at Kojo, North Korea, the last time her guns fire until the Persian Gulf War of 1992.
1954RCA manufactures its first color TV set and begins mass production.
1957The European Common Market Treaty is signed in Rome. The goal is to create a common market for all products–especially coal and steel.
1965Martin Luther King Jr. leads a group of 25,000 to the state capital in Montgomery, Ala.
1969John Lennon and Yoko Ono stage a bed-in for peace in Amsterdam.
1970The Concorde makes its first supersonic flight.
1975Hue is lost and Da Nang is endangered by North Vietnamese forces. The United States orders a refugee airlift to remove those in danger.
1981The U.S. Embassy in San Salvador is damaged when gunmen attack, firing rocket propelled grenades and machine guns.
1986President Ronald Reagan orders emergency aid for the Honduran army. U.S. helicopters take Honduran troops to the Nicaraguan border.

Born on March 25
1133Henry II, King of England (1154-1189).
1767Joachim Murat, Napoleon's brother in law who became king of Naples in 1808.
1797John Winebrenner, U.S. clergyman who founded the Church of God.
1839William Bell Wait, educator of the blind.
1867Gutzon Borglum, sculptor of Mount Rushmore.
1868Arturo Toscanini, Italian conductor.
1906Alan John Percivale Taylor, English historian.
1908David Lean, British film director (Bridge on the River KwaiLawrence of Arabia).
1925(Mary) Flannery O'Connor, novelist and short story writer.
1934Gloria Steinem, political activist, editor.
1942Aretha Franklin, American singer, the "Queen of Soul."

Tuesday, March 24, 2015


1208   King John of England opposes Innocent III on his nomination for archbishop of Canterbury. 
1603   Queen Elizabeth I dies which will bring into power James VI of Scotland. 
1663   Charles II of England awards lands known as Carolina in North America to eight members of the nobility who assisted in his restoration. 
1664   In London, Roger Williams is granted a charter to colonize Rhode Island. 
1720   The banking houses of Paris close in the wake of financial crisis. 
1721   In Germany, the supremely talented Johann Sebastian Bach publishes the Six Brandenburg Concertos. 
1765   Britain passes the Quartering Act, requiring the colonies to house 10,000 British troops in public and private buildings. 
1862   Abolitionist Wendell Phillips speaks to a crowd about emancipation in Cincinnati, Ohio and is pelted by eggs. 
1900   Mayor Van Wyck of New York breaks ground for the New York subway tunnel that will link Manhattan and Brooklyn. 
1904   Vice Admiral Togo sinks seven Russian ships as the Japanese strengthen their blockade of Port Arthur. 
1927   Chinese Communists seize Nanking and break with Chiang Kai-shek over the Nationalist goals. 
1938   The United States asks that all powers help refugees fleeing from the Nazis. 
1944   The Gestapo rounds up innocent Italians in Rome and shoot them to death in reprisal for a bomb attack that killed 33 German policemen. 
1947   Congress proposes limiting the presidency to two terms. 
1951   General Douglas MacArthur threatens the Chinese with an extension of the Korean War if the proposed truce is not accepted. 
1954   Great Britain opens trade talks with Hungary. 
1955   Tennessee Williams' play Cat on a Hot Tin Roof opens at the Morosco Theatre in New York City. 
1958   Elvis Presley trades in his guitar for a rifle and Army fatigues. 
1965   The Freedom Marchers, citizens for civil rights, reach Montgomery, Alabama. 
1967   Viet Cong ambush a truck convoy in South Vietnam damaging 82 of the 121 trucks. 
1972   Great Britain imposes direct rule over Northern Ireland. 
1985   Thousands demonstrate in Madrid against the NATO presence in Spain. 
1989   The Exxon Valdez oil tanker spills 240,000 barrels of oil in Alaska's Prince William Sound. 
1999   NATO planes, including stealth aircraft, attack Serbian forces in Kosovo.

Born on March 24
1755   Rufus King, framer of the U.S. Constitution. 
1834   William Morris, English craftsman, poet and socialist. 
1855   Andrew Mellon, U.S. financier and philanthropist. 
1874   Harry Houdini, magician, escape artist. 
1886   Edward Weston, photographer. 
1893   George Sisler, baseball player. 
1895   Arthur Murray, American dancer who founded dance schools. 
1902   Thomas E. Dewey, New York governor. 
1903   Adolf Butenandt, biochemist. 
1919   Lawrence Ferlinghetti, 'beat' poet. 
1926   Dario Fo, Italian actor and playwright. 
1941   Joseph H. Taylor, Jr., radio astronomer and physicist.

Monday, March 23, 2015


1657   France and England form an alliance against Spain. 
1743   Handel's Messiah is performed for the first time in London. 
1775   American revolutionary hero Patrick Henry, while addressing the House of Burgesses, declares "give me liberty, or give me death!" 
1791   Etta Palm, a Dutch champion of woman's rights, sets up a group of women's clubs called the Confederation of the Friends of Truth. 
1848   Hungary proclaims its independence of Austria. 
1857   Elisha Otis installs the first modern passenger elevator in a public building, at the corner of Broome Street and Broadway in New York City. 
1858   Eleazer A. Gardner of Philadelphia patents the cable street car, which runs on overhead cables. 
1862   Confederate General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson faces his only defeat at the Battle of Kernstown, Va 
1880   John Stevens of Neenah, Wis., patents the grain crushing mill. This mill allows flour production to increase by 70 percent. 
1901   A group of U.S. Army soldier led by Brig. Gen. Frederick Funston capture Emilio Aguinaldo, the leader of the Philippine Insurrection of 1899. 
1903   The Wright brothers obtain an airplane patent.
1909   British Lt. Ernest Shackleton finds the magnetic South Pole. 
1909   Theodore Roosevelt begins an African safari sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and National Geographic Society. 
1917   Austrian Emperor Charles I makes a peace proposal to French President Poincare. 
1920   Great Britain denounces the United States because of its delay in joining the League of Nations. 
1921   Arthur G. Hamilton sets a new parachute record, safely jumping 24,400 feet. 
1927   Captain Hawthorne Gray sets a new balloon record soaring to 28,510 feet. 
1933   The Reichstag gives Adolf Hitler the power to rule by decree. 1942   The Japanese occupy the Anadaman Islands in the Indian Ocean. 
1951   U.S. paratroopers descend from flying boxcars in a surprise attack in Korea. 
1956   Pakistan becomes the first Islamic republic, although it is still within the British Commonwealth. 
1967   Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. calls the Vietnam War the biggest obstacle to the civil rights movement. 
1970   Mafia boss Carlo Gambino is arrested for plotting to steal $3 million. 
1972   The United States calls a halt to the peace talks on Vietnam being held in Paris. 
1981   U.S. Supreme Court upholds a law making statutory rape a crime for men but not women.

Born on March 23
1900   Erich Fromm, German psychologist (The Sane Society). 
1907   Daniele Bovet, Swiss-born Italian pharmacologist. 
1908   Joan Crawford, American actress. 
1910   Akira Kurosawa, film director (RashomonThe Seven Samurai). 
1912   Werner von Braun, German-born rocket pioneer. 
1929   Sir Roger Bannister, the first man to run the mile in less than four minutes.