Thursday, March 26, 2015

Today in History March 26

1517   The famous Flemish composer Heinrich Issac dies. 
1799   Napoleon Bonaparte captures Jaffa, Palestine. 
1804   Congress orders the removal of Indians east of the Mississippi River to Louisiana. 
1804   The territory of New Orleans is organized in the Louisiana Purchase. 
1827   German composer Ludwig Van Beethoven dies in Vienna. He had been deaf for the later part of his life, but said on his death bed "I shall hear in heaven." 
1832   Famed western artist George Catlin begins his voyage up the Missouri River aboard the American Fur Company steamship Yellowstone
1885   Eastman Film Co. manufactures the first commercial motion picture film. 
1913   The Balkan allies take Adrianople. 
1918   On the Western Front, the Germans take the French towns Noyon, Roye and Lihons. 
1938   Herman Goering warns all Jews to leave Austria. 
1942   The Germans begin sending Jews to Auschwitz in Poland. 
1950   Senator Joe McCarthy names Owen Lattimore, an ex-State Department adviser, as a Soviet spy.
1951   The United States Air Force flag design is approved. 
1953   Eisenhower offers increased aid to the French fighting in Indochina. 
1953   Dr. Jonas Salk announces a new vaccine against polio. 
1954   The United States sets off an H-bomb blast in the Marshall Islands, the second in four weeks. 
1961   John F. Kennedy meets with British Premier Macmillan in Washington to discuss increased Communist involvement in Laos. 
1969   The Soviet weather Satellite Meteor 1 is launched. 
1969   Writer John Kennedy Toole commits suicide at the age of 32. His mother helps get his first and only novel, A Confederacy of Dunces, published. It goes on to win the 1981 Pulitzer Prize. 
1979   The Camp David treaty is signed between Israel and Egypt. 
1982   Ground is broken in Washington D.C. for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. 
1989   The first free elections take place in the Soviet Union. Boris Yeltsin is elected. 
1992   An Indianapolis court finds heavyweight boxing champion Mike Tyson guilty of rape.

Born on March 26
1819   Louise Otto, German author. 1850   Edward Bellamy, writer (Looking Backward). 
1859   A.E. Houseman, poet (A Shropshire Lad). 
1874   Robert Frost, poet, multiple Pulitzer Prize-winner. 
1880   Duncan Hines, U.S. restaurant guide author 
1904   Joseph Campbell, folklorist and writer. 
1911   Tennessee Williams, American dramatist (Cat on a Hot Tin RoofA Streetcar Name Desire). 
1914   William Westmoreland, U.S. army general during the Vietnam War. 
1923   Bob Elliot, radio comedian, one half of Bob and Ray. 
1930   Gregory Corso, beat poet, discovered literature in prison. 
1930   Sandra Day O'Connor, U.S. Supreme Court Justice. 
1933   Vine Deloria, Jr., writer, activist. 
1942   Erica Jong, poet, novelist (Fear of FlyingHow to Save Your Own Life). 

Wednesday, March 25, 2015


708Constantine begins his reign as Catholic Pope.
1634Lord Baltimore founds the Catholic colony of Maryland.
1655Puritans jail Governor Stone after a military victory over Catholic forces in the colony of Maryland.
1668The first horse race in America takes place.
1776The Continental Congress authorizes a medal for General George Washington.
1807British Parliament abolishes the slave trade.
1813The frigate USS Essex flies the first U.S. flag in battle in the Pacific.
1865Confederate forces capture Fort Stedman, during the siege of Petersburg, Va.
1879Japan invades the kingdom of Liuqiu (Ryukyu) Islands, formerly a vassal of China.
1905Rebel battle flags that were captured during the American Civil War are returned to the South.
1911A fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company, a sweatshop in New York City, claims the lives of 146 workers.
1915The first submarine disaster occurs when a U.S. F-4 sinks off the Hawaiian coast.
1919The Paris Peace Commission adopts a plan to protect nations from the influx of foreign labor.
1931Fifty people are killed in riots that break out in India. Mahatma Gandhi was one of many people assaulted.
1940The United States agrees to give Britain and France access to all American warplanes.
1941Yugoslavia joins the Axis powers.
1953The USS Missouri fires on targets at Kojo, North Korea, the last time her guns fire until the Persian Gulf War of 1992.
1954RCA manufactures its first color TV set and begins mass production.
1957The European Common Market Treaty is signed in Rome. The goal is to create a common market for all products–especially coal and steel.
1965Martin Luther King Jr. leads a group of 25,000 to the state capital in Montgomery, Ala.
1969John Lennon and Yoko Ono stage a bed-in for peace in Amsterdam.
1970The Concorde makes its first supersonic flight.
1975Hue is lost and Da Nang is endangered by North Vietnamese forces. The United States orders a refugee airlift to remove those in danger.
1981The U.S. Embassy in San Salvador is damaged when gunmen attack, firing rocket propelled grenades and machine guns.
1986President Ronald Reagan orders emergency aid for the Honduran army. U.S. helicopters take Honduran troops to the Nicaraguan border.

Born on March 25
1133Henry II, King of England (1154-1189).
1767Joachim Murat, Napoleon's brother in law who became king of Naples in 1808.
1797John Winebrenner, U.S. clergyman who founded the Church of God.
1839William Bell Wait, educator of the blind.
1867Gutzon Borglum, sculptor of Mount Rushmore.
1868Arturo Toscanini, Italian conductor.
1906Alan John Percivale Taylor, English historian.
1908David Lean, British film director (Bridge on the River KwaiLawrence of Arabia).
1925(Mary) Flannery O'Connor, novelist and short story writer.
1934Gloria Steinem, political activist, editor.
1942Aretha Franklin, American singer, the "Queen of Soul."

Tuesday, March 24, 2015


1208   King John of England opposes Innocent III on his nomination for archbishop of Canterbury. 
1603   Queen Elizabeth I dies which will bring into power James VI of Scotland. 
1663   Charles II of England awards lands known as Carolina in North America to eight members of the nobility who assisted in his restoration. 
1664   In London, Roger Williams is granted a charter to colonize Rhode Island. 
1720   The banking houses of Paris close in the wake of financial crisis. 
1721   In Germany, the supremely talented Johann Sebastian Bach publishes the Six Brandenburg Concertos. 
1765   Britain passes the Quartering Act, requiring the colonies to house 10,000 British troops in public and private buildings. 
1862   Abolitionist Wendell Phillips speaks to a crowd about emancipation in Cincinnati, Ohio and is pelted by eggs. 
1900   Mayor Van Wyck of New York breaks ground for the New York subway tunnel that will link Manhattan and Brooklyn. 
1904   Vice Admiral Togo sinks seven Russian ships as the Japanese strengthen their blockade of Port Arthur. 
1927   Chinese Communists seize Nanking and break with Chiang Kai-shek over the Nationalist goals. 
1938   The United States asks that all powers help refugees fleeing from the Nazis. 
1944   The Gestapo rounds up innocent Italians in Rome and shoot them to death in reprisal for a bomb attack that killed 33 German policemen. 
1947   Congress proposes limiting the presidency to two terms. 
1951   General Douglas MacArthur threatens the Chinese with an extension of the Korean War if the proposed truce is not accepted. 
1954   Great Britain opens trade talks with Hungary. 
1955   Tennessee Williams' play Cat on a Hot Tin Roof opens at the Morosco Theatre in New York City. 
1958   Elvis Presley trades in his guitar for a rifle and Army fatigues. 
1965   The Freedom Marchers, citizens for civil rights, reach Montgomery, Alabama. 
1967   Viet Cong ambush a truck convoy in South Vietnam damaging 82 of the 121 trucks. 
1972   Great Britain imposes direct rule over Northern Ireland. 
1985   Thousands demonstrate in Madrid against the NATO presence in Spain. 
1989   The Exxon Valdez oil tanker spills 240,000 barrels of oil in Alaska's Prince William Sound. 
1999   NATO planes, including stealth aircraft, attack Serbian forces in Kosovo.

Born on March 24
1755   Rufus King, framer of the U.S. Constitution. 
1834   William Morris, English craftsman, poet and socialist. 
1855   Andrew Mellon, U.S. financier and philanthropist. 
1874   Harry Houdini, magician, escape artist. 
1886   Edward Weston, photographer. 
1893   George Sisler, baseball player. 
1895   Arthur Murray, American dancer who founded dance schools. 
1902   Thomas E. Dewey, New York governor. 
1903   Adolf Butenandt, biochemist. 
1919   Lawrence Ferlinghetti, 'beat' poet. 
1926   Dario Fo, Italian actor and playwright. 
1941   Joseph H. Taylor, Jr., radio astronomer and physicist.

Monday, March 23, 2015


1657   France and England form an alliance against Spain. 
1743   Handel's Messiah is performed for the first time in London. 
1775   American revolutionary hero Patrick Henry, while addressing the House of Burgesses, declares "give me liberty, or give me death!" 
1791   Etta Palm, a Dutch champion of woman's rights, sets up a group of women's clubs called the Confederation of the Friends of Truth. 
1848   Hungary proclaims its independence of Austria. 
1857   Elisha Otis installs the first modern passenger elevator in a public building, at the corner of Broome Street and Broadway in New York City. 
1858   Eleazer A. Gardner of Philadelphia patents the cable street car, which runs on overhead cables. 
1862   Confederate General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson faces his only defeat at the Battle of Kernstown, Va 
1880   John Stevens of Neenah, Wis., patents the grain crushing mill. This mill allows flour production to increase by 70 percent. 
1901   A group of U.S. Army soldier led by Brig. Gen. Frederick Funston capture Emilio Aguinaldo, the leader of the Philippine Insurrection of 1899. 
1903   The Wright brothers obtain an airplane patent.
1909   British Lt. Ernest Shackleton finds the magnetic South Pole. 
1909   Theodore Roosevelt begins an African safari sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and National Geographic Society. 
1917   Austrian Emperor Charles I makes a peace proposal to French President Poincare. 
1920   Great Britain denounces the United States because of its delay in joining the League of Nations. 
1921   Arthur G. Hamilton sets a new parachute record, safely jumping 24,400 feet. 
1927   Captain Hawthorne Gray sets a new balloon record soaring to 28,510 feet. 
1933   The Reichstag gives Adolf Hitler the power to rule by decree. 1942   The Japanese occupy the Anadaman Islands in the Indian Ocean. 
1951   U.S. paratroopers descend from flying boxcars in a surprise attack in Korea. 
1956   Pakistan becomes the first Islamic republic, although it is still within the British Commonwealth. 
1967   Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. calls the Vietnam War the biggest obstacle to the civil rights movement. 
1970   Mafia boss Carlo Gambino is arrested for plotting to steal $3 million. 
1972   The United States calls a halt to the peace talks on Vietnam being held in Paris. 
1981   U.S. Supreme Court upholds a law making statutory rape a crime for men but not women.

Born on March 23
1900   Erich Fromm, German psychologist (The Sane Society). 
1907   Daniele Bovet, Swiss-born Italian pharmacologist. 
1908   Joan Crawford, American actress. 
1910   Akira Kurosawa, film director (RashomonThe Seven Samurai). 
1912   Werner von Braun, German-born rocket pioneer. 
1929   Sir Roger Bannister, the first man to run the mile in less than four minutes.

Sunday, March 22, 2015


Today in History
March 22

1622 Indians attack a group of colonists in the James River area of Virginia, killing 350 residents.
1630 The first legislation prohibiting gambling is enacted in Boston.
1664 Charles II gives large tracks of land from west of the Connecticut River to the east of Delaware Bay in North America to his brother James, the Duke of York.
1719 Frederick William abolishes serfdom on crown property in Prussia.
1765 The Stamp Act is passed, the first direct British tax on the American colonists.
1775 British statesman Edmund Burke makes a speech in the House of Commons, urging the government to adopt a policy of reconciliation with America.
1790 Thomas Jefferson becomes the first U.S. Secretary of State.
1794 Congress passes laws prohibiting slave trade with foreign countries although slavery remains legal in the United States.
1834 Horace Greeley publishes New Yorker, a weekly literary and news magazine and forerunner of Harold Ross' more successful The New Yorker.
1901 Japan proclaims that it is determined to keep Russia from encroaching on Korea.
1904 The first color photograph is published in the London Daily Illustrated Mirror.
1907 Russians troops complete the evacuation of Manchuria in the face of advancing Japanese forces.
1915 A German Zepplin makes a night raid on Paris railway stations.
1919 The first international airline service is inaugurated on a weekly schedule between Paris and Brussels.
1933 President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a bill legalizing the sale and possession of beer and wine.
1935 Persia is renamed Iran.
1946 First U.S. built rocket to leave the Earth's atmosphere reaches a 50-mile height.
1948 The United States announces a land reform plan for Korea.
1954 The London gold market reopens for the first time since 1939.
1968 President Lyndon Johnson names General William Westmoreland as Army Chief of Staff.
1972 The U.S. Senate passes the Equal Rights Amendment. The amendment fails to achieve ratification.
1974 The Viet Cong propose a new truce with the United States and South Vietnam, which includes general elections.
1990 A jury in Anchorage, Alaska, finds Captain Hazelwood not guilty in the Valdez oil spill.
Born on March 22
1599 Sir Anthony Van Dyck, Flemish artist, the namesake of the beard style.
1797 Wilhelm I, German emperor (1871-88)
1846 Randolph Caldecott, illustrator.
1907 James Gavin, U.S. Army general of the 82nd Airborne Division in WWII.
1908 Louis L'Amour, American Western novelist.
1923 Marcel Marceau, French mime.
1930 Stephen Sondheim, American composer and lyricist (A Little Night MusicPassion).
1948 Andrew Lloyd Webber, British composer (The Phantom of the OperaCats)

Saturday, March 21, 2015



Today in History
March 21
630 Heraclius restores the True Cross, which he has recaptured from the Persians.
1556 Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, is burned at the stake at Oxford after retracting the last of seven recantations that same day.
1617 Pocahontas (Rebecca Rolfe) dies of either small pox or pneumonia while in England with her husband, John Rolfe.
1788 Almost the entire city of New Orleans, Louisiana, is destroyed by fire.
1806 Lewis and Clark begin their trip home after an 8,000 mile trek of the Mississippi basin and the Pacific Coast.
1865 The Battle of Bentonville, N.C. ends, marking the last Confederate attempt to stop Union General William Sherman.
1851 Emperor Tu Duc orders that Christian priests are to put to death.
1858 British forces in India lift the siege of Lucknow, ending the Indian Mutiny.
1906 Ohio passes a law that prohibits hazing by fraternities.
1908 Frenchman Henri Farman carries a passenger in a bi-plane for the first time.
1910 The U.S. Senate grants ex-President Teddy Roosevelt an annual pension of $10,000.
1918 The Germans launch the 'Michael' offensive, better remembered as the First Battle of the Somme.
1928 President Calvin Coolidge presents the Congressional Medal of Honor to Charles Lindbergh, a captain in the US Army Air Corps Reserve, for making the first solo trans-Atlantic flight. On June 11, 1927, Lindbergh had received the first Distinguished Flying Cross ever awarded.
1939 Singer Kate Smith records "God Bless America" for Victor Records.
1941 The last Italian post in East Libya, North Africa, falls to the British.
1951 Secretary of Defense George C. Marshall reports that the U.S. military has doubled to 2.9 million since the start of the Korean War.
1963 Alcatraz Island, the federal penitentiary in San Francisco Bay, California, closes.
1965 The United States launches Ranger 9, last in a series of unmanned lunar explorations.
1971 Two U.S. platoons in Vietnam refuse their orders to advance.
1975 As North Vietnamese forces advance, Hue and other northern towns in South Vietnam are evacuated.
1980 President Jimmy Carter announces to the U.S. Olympic Team that they will not participate in the 1980 Summer Games in Moscow as a boycott against Soviet intervention in Afghanistan.
1984 A Soviet submarine crashes into the USS Kitty Hawk off the coast of Japan.
Born on March 21
1685 Johann Sebastian Bach, German composer.
1806 Benito Juarez, President of Mexico.
1869 Albert Kahn, architect who originated modern factory design.
1869 Florenz Ziegfeld, producer, creator of Ziegfeld Follies.
1885 Raoul Lufbery, French-born American fighter pilot of World War I.