Saturday, October 31, 2015

What Happened This Day In History - October 31

Today in History
October 31
1517 Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses to the door of the church at Wittenberg in Germany. Luther’s theories and writings inaugurate Protestantism, shattering the external structure of the medieval church and at the same time reviving the religious consciousness of Europe.
1803 Congress ratifies the purchase of the entire Louisiana area in North America, adding territory to the U.S. which will eventually become 13 more states.
1838 A mob of about 200 attacks a Mormon camp in Missouri, killing 20 men, women and children.
1864 Nevada becomes the 36th state.
1941 After 14 years of work, the Mount Rushmore National Memorial is completed.
1952 The United States explodes the first hydrogen bomb at Eniwetok Atoll in the Pacific.
1968 The bombing of North Vietnam is halted by the United States.
1971 Saigon begins the release of 1,938 Hanoi POW’s.
1984 Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi is assassinated in New Delhi by two Sikh members of her bodyguard.
1998 Iraq announces it will no longer cooperate with United Nations weapons inspectors.
1999 EgyptAir Flight 990 crashes into Atlantic Ocean killing all 217 people on board.
2000 Soyuz TM-31 launches, carrying the first resident crew to the International Space Station.
2002 Former Enron Corp. CEO Andrew Fastow convicted on 78 counts of conspiracy, money laundering, obstruction of justice and wire fraud; the Enron collapse cost investors millions and led to new oversight legislation.

Born on October 31
1795 John Keats, poet.
1802 Benoit Fourneyron, inventor of the water turbine.
1860 Juliette Low, founder of the Girl Scouts.
1887 Chiang Kai-Shek, Chinese Nationalist.
1896 Ethel Waters, actress and blues singer.
1902 Carlos Drummond de Andrade, Brazilian poet, journalist and short story writer.
1917 William H. McNeil, historian (The Rise of the West).
1925 Charles Moore, influential post-modern architect.
1930 Michael Collins, U.S. astronaut.
1931 Dan Rather, journalist; anchor of CBS Evening News (1981–2005).
1936 Michael Landon, actor (BonanzaLittle House on the Prairie TV series).
1937 Tom Paxton, folk singer, songwriter, musician; received a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award (2009).
1942 David Ogden Stiers, actor; best known for his role as stuffy Maj. Charles Emerson Winchester III on M*A*S*H* TV series (1977–1983).
1950 Jane Pauley, journalist; co-host of The Today Show (1976–1989) and Dateline NBC (1992–2003).
1950 Antonio Taguba, retired US Army major general best known for authoring the Taguba Report on abuse of detainees at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq; Taguba is the second American citizen of Philippine birth to reach the rank of general in the US Army.
1961 Sir Peter Jackson, New Zealand film director, producer, screenwriter (Lord of the RingsThe Hobbit)
1961 Larry Mullen Jr., musician; drummer for U2 band.
2005 Infanta Leonor of Spain, second in line of succession to the Spanish throne.

Friday, October 30, 2015

What Happened This Day In History - October 30

Today in History
October 30
1270 The Seventh Crusade ends by the Treaty of Barbary.
1485 Henry VII of England crowned.
1697 The Treaty of Ryswick ends the war between France and the Grand Alliance.
1838 Oberlin Collegiate Institute in Lorian County, Ohio becomes the first college in the U.S. to admit female students.
1899 Two battalions of British troops are cut off, surrounded and forced to surrender to General Petrus Joubert’s Boers at Nicholson’s Nek.
1905 The czar of Russia issues the October Manisfesto, granting civil liberties and elections in an attempt to avert the burgeonng supprot for revolution.
1918 The Italians capture Vittorio Veneto and rout the Austro-Hungarian army.
1918 Turkey signs an armistice with the Allies, agreeing to end hostilities at noon, October 31.
1922 Mussolini sends his black shirts into Rome. The Fascist takeover is almost without bloodshed. The next day, Mussolini is made prime minister. Mussolini centralized all power in himself as leader of the Fascist party and attempted to create an Italian empire, ultimately in alliance with Hitler’s Germany.
1925 Scotsman John L. Baird performs first TV broadcast of moving objects.
1938 H.G. Wells’ War of the Worlds is broadcast over the radio by Orson Welles’ Mercury Theatre. Many panic believing it is an actual newscast about a Martian invasion.
1941 The U.S. destroyer Reuben James, on convoy duty off Iceland, is sunk by a German U-boat with the loss of 96 Americans.
1950 The First Marine Division is ordered to replace the entire South Korean I Corps at the Chosin Reservoir area.
1953 US Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower formally approves a top secret document to maintain and expand the country’s nuclear arsenal.
1961 The USSR detonates "Tsar Bomba," a 50-megaton hydrogen bomb; it is still (2013) the largest explosive device of any kind over detonated.
1965 US Marines repeal multiple-wave attacks by Viet Cong within a few miles of Da Nang where the Marines were based; a sketch of Marine positions was found on the body of a 13-year-old boy who had been selling the Americans drinks the previous day.
1973 The Bosphorus Bridge is completed at Istanbul, Turkey, connecting Europe and Asia over the Bosphorus Strait.
1974 The "Rumble in the Jungle," a boxing match in Zaire that many regard as the greatest sporting event of the 20th century, saw challenger Muhammad Ali knock out previously undefeated World Heavyweight Champion George Foreman.
1975 Prince Juan Carlos becomes acting head of state in Spain, replacing the ailing dictator Gen. Francisco Franco.
1985 Space Shuttle Challenger lifts off for its final successful mission.
1991 BET Holdings Inc., becomes the first African-American company listed on the New York Stock Exchange.
2005 The rebuilt Dresden Frauenkirche (Church of Our Lady) that was destroyed during the firebombing of Dresden in WWII is rededicated.

Born on October 30
1735 John Adams, second president of the United States who helped draft the Declaration of Independence and the Treaty of Paris, ending the American Revolution.
1751 Richard Sheridan, playwright (The RivalsThe School for Scandal).
1839 Alfred Sisley, landscape painter.
1857 Gertrude Atherton, novelist.
1871 Paul Valery, poet and essayist.
1882 William F. "Bull" Halsey, Jr., American admiral who played an instrumental role in the defeat of Japan during World War II. The Japanese surrender was signed on his flagship, the USS Missouri.
1885 Ezra Pound, American poet who promoted Imagism, a poetic movement stressing free phrase rather than forced metric. He was imprisoned for his pro-Fascist radio broadcasts.
1896 Ruth Gordon, Oscar, Emmy and Golden Globe–winning actress (Harold and MaudeRosemary’s Baby).
1906 Hermann Fegelein, SS general of WWII who was brother-in-law to Adolf Hitler’s mistress Eva Braun.
1915 Fred W. Friendly, president of CBS News and co-creator of the documentary series See It Now, the program largely credited for bringing down Sen. Joe McCarthy.
1930 Clifford "Brpwnie" Brown, influential jazz trumpeter and composer ("Joy Spring," "Daahoud").
1936 Dick Vermeil, head coach of the National Football League’s Philadelphia Eagles (1976–1982), St. Louis Rams (1997–1999), and Kansas City Chiefs (2001–2005).
1939 Grace Slick, singer, songwriter; lead singer for the bands The Great Society, Jefferson Airplane, Jefferson Starship and Starship.
1945 Henry Winkler, actor, director, producer; rose to fame as "The Fonz" onHappy Days TV series, a role that twice earned him a Golden Globe for Best Actor in a Television Series Musical or Comedy.
1970 Tory Belleci, filmmaker and model maker known for his work on theMythbusters TV series; also worked on two Star Wars films.

Thursday, October 29, 2015

What Happened This Day In History - October 29

October 29
1618 Sir Walter Raleigh is executed. After the death of Queen Elizabeth, Raleigh’s enemies spread rumors that he was opposed the accession of King James.
1787 Mozart’s opera Don Giovanni opens in Prague.
1814 The Demologos, the first steam-powered warship, launched in New York City.
1901 Leon Czolgosz is electrocuted for the assassination of US President William McKinley. Czolgosz, an anarchist, shot McKinley on September 6 during a public reception at the Temple of Music in Buffalo, N.Y. Despite early hopes of recovery, McKinley died September 14, in Buffalo, NY.
1927 Russian archaeologist Peter Kozloff apparently uncovers the tomb of Genghis Khan in the Gobi Desert, a claim still in dispute.
1929 Black Tuesday–the most catastrophic day in stock market history, the herald of the Great Depression. 16 million shares were sold at declining prices. By mid-November $30 billion of the $80 billion worth of stocks listed in September will have been wiped out.
1945 The first ball-point pen goes is sold by Gimbell’s department store in New York for a price of $12.
1949 Alonzo G. Moron of the Virgin Islands becomes the first African-American president of Hampton Institute, Hampton, Virginia.
1952 French forces launch Operation Lorraine against Viet Minh supply bases in Indochina.
1964 Thieves steal a jewel collection–including the world’s largest sapphire, the 565-carat "Star of India," and the 100-carat DeLong ruby–from the Museum of Natural History in New York. The thieves were caught and most of the jewels recovered.
1969 The U.S. Supreme Court orders immediate desegregation, superseding the previous "with all deliberate speed" ruling.
1969 First computer-to-computer link; the link is accomplished through ARPANET, forerunner of the Internet.
1972 Palestinian guerrillas kill an airport employee and hijack a plane, carrying 27 passengers, to Cuba. They force West Germany to release 3 terrorists who were involved in the Munich Massacre.
1983 More than 500,000 people protest in The Hague, The Netherlands, against cruise missiles.
1986 The last stretch of Britain’s M25 motorway opens.
1998 South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission reports condemns both sides on the Apartheid issue for committing atrocities.
1998 John Glenn, at age 77, becomes the oldest person to go into outer space. He is part of the crew of Space Shuttle Discovery, STS-95.
1998 The deadliest Atlantic hurricane on record up to that time, Hurricane Mitch, makes landfall in Honduras (in 2005 Hurricane Wilma surpassed it); nearly 11,000 people died and approximately the same number were missing.
2004 For the first time, Osama bin Laden admits direct responsibility for the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the US; his comments are part of a video broadcast by the Al Jazeera network.
2008 Delta and Northwest airlines merge, forming the world’s largest airline.
2012 Hurricane Sandy devastates much of the East Coast of the US; nearly 300 die directly or indirectly from the storm.

Born on October 29
1882 Jean Giraudoux, French dramatist, novelist and diplomat, famous for his book Tiger at the Gates.
1891 Fanny Brice, comedian, singer and actress.
1897 Joseph G. Göbbels, German Nazi Propaganda Minister who committed suicide in Hitler’s bunker.
1905 Henry Green, novelist (LivingParty Going).
1910 A. J. Ayer, English philosopher.
1921 Bill Maudlin, American cartoonist whose GI characters "Willie" and "Joe" appeared in Stars and Stripes newspapers during World War II.
1938 Ralph Bakshi, Palestinian-American director of live films and animated full-length films for adults including 1972’s Fritz the Cat (first animated film to be rated X by the Motion Picture Association of America), Wizards (1977) and The Lord of the Rings (1978).
1943 Don Simpson, film producer, screenwriter, actor; (co-producer Flashdance, 1985; Top Gun, 1986).
1945 Melba Moore, disco and R&B singer, actress ("You Stepped into My Life," "Lean on Me").
1946 Peter Green, guitarist, songwriter, founder of the band Fleetwood Mac; regarded as one of the greatest guitarists of all time.
1947 Richard Dreyfuss, actor (American GraffitiJaws; won Academy Award for Best Actor for 1977’s The Goodbye Girl).
1948 Kate Jackson, actress, director, producer (original Charlie’s Angels TV series,Scarecrow and Mrs. King TV series).
1954 Lee Child, author; creator of the Jack Reacher novel series.
1958 David Remnick, journals, author, magazine editor (The New Yorker); won Pulitzer Prize for Lenin’s Tomb: The Last Days of the Soviet Empire (1994).
1971 Winona Ryder, actress, producer (BeetlejuiceGirl, Interrupted).

Wednesday, October 28, 2015

What Happened This Day In History - October 28

October 28
312 Constantine the Great defeats Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius at the Mulvian Bridge.
969 After a prolonged siege, the Byzantines end 300 years of Arab rule in Antioch.
1216 Henry III of England is crowned.
1628 After a fifteen-month siege, the Huguenot town of La Rochelle surrenders to royal forces.
1636 Harvard College, the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, is founded in Cambridge, Mass.
1768 Germans and Acadians join French Creoles in their armed revolt against the Spanish governor of New Orleans.
1793 Eli Whitney applies for a patent on the cotton gin, a machine which cleans the tight-clinging seeds from short-staple cotton easily and effectively–a job which was previously done by hand.
1863 In a rare night attack, Confederates under Gen. James Longstreet attack a Federal force near Chattanooga, Tennessee, hoping to cut their supply line, the "cracker line." They fail.
1886 The Statue of Liberty, originally named Liberty Enlightening the World, is dedicated at Liberty Island, N. Y., formerly Bedloe’s Island, by President Grover Cleveland
1901 Race riots sparked by Booker T. Washington’s visit to the White House kill 34.
1904 The St. Louis police try a new investigation method: fingerprints.
1914 The German cruiser Emden, disguised as a British ship, steams into Penang Harbor near Malaya and sinks the Russian light cruiser Zhemchug.
1914 George Eastman announces the invention of the color photographic process.
1919 Over President Wilson’s veto, Congress passes the National Prohibition Act, or Volstead Act, named after its promoter, Congressman Andrew J. Volstead. It provides enforcement guidelines for the Prohibition Amendment.
1927 Pan American Airways launches the first scheduled international flight.
1940 Italy invades Greece, launching six divisions on four fronts from occupied Albania.
1944 The first B-29 Superfortress bomber mission flies from the airfields in the Mariana Islands in a strike against the Japanese base at Truk.
1960 In a note to the OAS (Organization of American States), the United States charges that Cuba has been receiving substantial quantities of arms and numbers of military technicians" from the Soviet bloc.
1962 Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev orders Soviet missiles removed from Cuba, ending the Cuban Missile Crisis.
1965 Construction completed on St. Louis Arch; at 630 feet (192m), it is the world’s tallest arch.
1971 Britain launches the satellite Prospero into orbit, using a Black Arrow carrier rocket; this is the first and so far (2013) only British satellite launched by a British rocket.
1982 The Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party wins election, giving Spain its first Socialist government since the death of right-wing President Francisco Franco.
2005 Libby "Scooter" Lewis, chief of staff to Vice President Dick Cheney, resigns after being indicted for "outing" CIA agent Valerie Plame.
2007 Argentina elects its first woman president, Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner.

Born on October 28
1875 Gilbert Grosvenor, editor, turned the National Geographic Society’s irregularly published pamphlet into a periodical with a circulation of nearly two million.
1896 Howard Hansen, composer, director of the Eastman School of music.
1903 Evelyn Waugh, English novelist who wrote Decline and Fall and Brideshead Revisited.
1909 Francis Bacon, English artist who painted expressionist portraits.
1912 Richard Doll, English epidemiologist who established a link between tobacco smoke and cancer.
1914 Jonas Salk, U.S. scientist who developed the first vaccine against polio.
1926 Bowie Kuhn, Commissioner of Major League Baseball (1969–1984).
1936 Charlie Daniels, country / Southern rock singer, songwriter, musician ("The Devil Went Down to Georgia").
1938 Anne Perry, an author of historical detective fiction, she was herself convicted at age 15 of aiding in the murder of a friend’s mother in New Zealand; their crime was the basis for the 1994 film Heavenly Creatures.
1944 Anton Schlecker, founder of the Schlecker Company, which operated retail stores across Europe.
1949 Bruce Jenner, athlete, actor; won gold medal in the Decathlon at the Summer Olympics in Montreal (1976).
1951 Joe R. Lansdale, author ("Hap and Leonard" novel series, "Bubba Ho-Tep"); won World Horror Convention Grand Master Award 2007.
1955 William "Bill" Gates, the chairman and CEO of Microsoft Corporation, the world’s largest software firm.
1967 Sophie, Hereditary Princess of Liechtenstein.
1967 Julia Roberts, actress (Pretty WomanSteel Magnolias; won Academy Award for Best Actress in Erin Brockovich).
1967 John Romero, game designer, developer; co-founded id Software (Doom,Quake).
1972 Brad Paisley, country / Southern rock singer, songwriter, musician ("I’m Gonna Miss Her," "Letter to Me"); his many awards include the Country Music Association’s Entertainer of the Year 2010.